CSC is now PCSC
As it was initially conceived and planned for all purposes, the Conflict Study Center (CSC) has now been renamed as the Peace and Conflict Studies Center (PCSC). This also reflects the fact that the primary focus of Nepal and Nepali people has now shifted toward consolidation of peace efforts. PCSC believes that all its activities need to be concentrated toward sustainable peace, harmony and security. It is a part of PCSC's support for peace process to provide quality training to highly capable Nepalis to become dedicated professionals in the fields of peace, security and human rights. At the same time, however, PCSC will continue its activities to minimize eruption of conflict and violence and to disseminate information and research findings for resolving conflicts and consolidating peace. PCSC welcomes ideas and suggestions from all quarters that may enable it to contribute more qualitatively in the country's strenuous journey toward peace and security.
Struggling For True Sovereignty
Situation Update 91
Bishnu Pathak, PhD
Land-locked Nepal has always existed in giant India's shadow. However, now that its people have tasted democracy, they want to shake off Indian influence and become masters of their own destiny. Nepal has long historic, strategic, geo-political, commercial and socio-cultural relations with India. There has been a protracted debate and discourse to continuously improve such relations. But history also shows that whenever Nepal is in its transition phases, its people encounter several problems at national and regional levels owing to the role of India. Nepalis living on the Nepal-India border have suffered in particular at the hands of Indian border security forces and criminal groups. In spite of such suffering, they have failed to attract the country's attention as most governments and mainstream parties have turned a deaf ear to their problems, fearing reprisals from India. A principal reason behind such practices is that the Nepalese authorities seek personal/family/party/cadre benefits whenever they get an opportunity to meet the Indian establishment, pushing behind the crucial issues faced by the people.
In the course of agitation to restore civilian supremacy, the UCPN (Maoist) initiated an anti-Indian campaign torching the 1950 India-Nepal treaty, displaying black flags in front of senior government officials, protesting in front of the Indian Embassy, boycotting CA House on the issue of intrusion and holding mass assemblies at the alleged Indian-encroached border regions from January 5 2010 for a month. On January 11, the UCPN (Maoist) Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal, alias Prachanda, in a mass meeting at Mahendranagar, said, "I will fight for national independence and sovereignty till my last breath."
|Struggling For True Sovereignty|
Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration And Security Sector Reform in Nepal: A Preliminary Sociological Observation
Situation Update 90
March 7, 2010
Bishnu Pathak, PhD and Devendra Uprety
Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a continuous process to all countries and regions, including politically stable states, fragile states, and post-conflict countries. However, it is widely understood that there need to be urgent SSR priorities in countries emerging from large-scale violent conflict . Over the years, Nepalese society has undergone deep structural shift - a full decade of violent political upheaval abolished the 240 year Shah Dynasty and established a federal republic. Right now, Nepal is poised at a decisive crossroads in its transition from armed conflict to post-conflict recovery and democratic government . Before the decade-long Maoists armed conflict, Nepal had not tolerated such an intense domestic violent crisis since the formation of the modern state. Nepal has long suffered from highly politicized security institutions. Politically, the state apparatus has been dominated by a few feudal elites who have been principally resistant to democratic reform. Particularly, the security sector has been much more complicated by nature of the long feudal-based autocratic political system.
In the long political history of Nepal, the military force was commanded by the dynastic monarchy or the hereditary Rana oligarchy. There has never been any precedent for maintaining civilian supremacy over the armed force. Highly use and misuse of national security agencies (army, police, and intelligence) by certain political parties for their specific ends creates further problems in the security sector. On the other side, it seems a more challenging situation in the security sector may occur in the coming days due to intense proliferation of hundreds of armed militant groups throughout the nation. The Maoists armies' (re)integration into Nepal Army to form national army is again a major challenge to the nation. The demobilization and disarmament (DD) of the Maoists army under UNMIN supervision has already been completed. According to the agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies between the Nepal government and the Maoists on December 8, 2006, UNMIN has verified 19,602 Maoist combatants. These combatants have been living in seven main and 21-satellite cantonments (see table 2) under the UNMIN's supervision, after the completion of registration. Under Resolution 1740 (2007) UNMIN has been given the mandate to monitor the management of arms and armed personnel of the Nepal Army and the Maoist army, in line with the provisions of the Compressive Peace Agreement (CPA) and assist the parties through a Joint Monitoring Coordination Committee (JMCC) in implementing their agreement on the management of arms and armed personnel .
|Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration And Security Sector Reform in Nepal: A Preliminary Sociological Observation|
Child Soldiers: Crime against Humanity
Situation Update 89
December 16, 2009
Pawan Bimali and Bishnu Pathak, PhD
Each year thousands of children under 18-year have been affected by armed conflict, directly and indirectly. They are recruited on the hope (of better future), fear, and insecurity. Child soldier is widely practiced in the form of spies, porters, messengers, cooks, lay or clear landmines, training or guarding other children, weapons transport workers, etc. in conflict-prone countries. Girl child is always at high risk of rape and other forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment. Such forms rob their childhood and expose to terrible endangers through the psychological, physical and socio-cultural sufferings.
Due to these consequences, child soldiers are deprived of their basic and constitutional fundamental rights such as right to life, liberty, security and so forth. Most of them die or badly injured during the battle. In case of their rescue, socio-cultural reintegration is difficult. Child soldiers are double victimized while most of the relatives are reluctant to accept them and the surrounding community is negative and biased to them. The situation is even worse for the girl soldiers.
The issue of child soldiers has been a global problem where around 300,000 children are serving in more than 30 countries. Internal armed or socio-cultural conflict, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance, insecurity and religious, social and political causes are some of the major reasons for its prevalence. Easily and cheaply available small arms and light weapons (SALW) fuel this problem further. The desire of authoritarian regimes, along with bad governance, injustice, ethno-cultural identity-based interests, unequal distribution of resources and ideology are its root causes.
Unpaid service, easily available (capture to children), obedient, dependent and easy to use in different circumstances are the attractions for the warlord(s) to choose children. So they are vulnerable. Some commanders believe that children are more efficient and better fighter than the other soldiers. They are not easily noticeable by the enemies.
|Child Soldiers: Crime against Humanity|
The CSCenter in the News: Police Station Visitors Week 2009
Nepal among 20 countries for visitors
Himalayan News Service
KATHMANDU: ALTUS Alliance is organising Police Station Visitors’ Week (PSVW) from October 26 to November 1.
As plans go, small teams of residents, during the event, will visit their local police stations in 20 countries to assess certain aspects of services provided to the public, Conflict Study Centre (CSC) stated here today.
The 20 countries that have been selected from all the five continents are Ghana, Nigeria, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone and Uganda from Africa; Brazil, Chile and Peru from Latin America; the United States from North America; Albania, Russia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom from Europe; and Nepal, Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Sri-Lanka from Asia.
Altus, the organiser of the event, is a global alliance working to improve public safety and justice. Conflict Study Centre is one among the local partner organisations of the Altus Global Alliance for Police Station Visitors’ Week, which is organising the PSVW, for the first time in Nepal. “The event will incorporate 10 police stations in Kathmandu, namely Balaju, Bouddha, Bhaktapur, Gaushala, Humandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgung, New-Baneshwor and Singha Durbar,” read the statement.
The visit by small groups of citizens is designed to boost the five dimensions of police service — community orientation, physical condition, equal treatment of the public, detention conditions, transparency and accountability.
PSVW helps assess the quality of services delivered in the participating police departments, identify best practices, strengthen accountability of police to local citizens whom they serve and promote human rights standards.
The main goal of the programme is said to uplift the quality of local police service in comparison to international standards. This could also be crucial to build trust and cooperation between the police and communities.
Police Stations Visitors Week to begin Oct 26
KATHMANDU, Oct 23:
Altus Global Alliance (AGA), an grouping of six criminal justice reform organizations from Brazil, Chile, India, Nigeria, Russia and the United States, is organizing a Police Stations Visitors Week (PSVW) in Nepal starting October 26.
Conflict Study Center, the local partner of AGA, is organizing the PSWV at 10 various police stations in Kathmandu Valley including Balaju, Boudhha, Bhaktapur, Gaushala, Hanumandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgunj, New Baneshwor and Singha Durbar.
A small team of residents will visit the police stations to produce comparable scores on five dimensions of police service including community orientation, physical condition of the police stations, equal treatment to the public, condition of detention centers, transparence and accountability.
The scores generated by the visitors during PSVW would allow Altus to identify examples of good practices nationally, regionally and globally, while allowing local non-government organizations and citizens to engage police personnel in their areas to improve the latter´s service delivery.
According to CSC president Bishnu Pathak, the objective of PSVW is to improve the quality of local police service by identifying some of the good practices of police in various countries of the world. Apart from Nepal, PSVW is being organized in Brazil, Chile, Peru, United States, Albania, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Malyasia, India, Pakisatan and Sri Lanka.
The PSWV aims at assembling a body of comparative criminal justice reform research and practice that can both support local reforms and guide the relationship between domestic criminal justice systems and their international counterparts through collaborative efforts of its members and other international partners.
Press Release: October 23rd 2009
Police Station Visitors Week for 2009
Police Station Visitors week (PSVW) is being organized from October 26th to November 1st, 2009 by the ALTUS Global Alliance (www.altus.org). In this event small teams of residents will visit their local police stations in 20 countries to assess certain aspects of the services that they provide to the public.
Countries are included from all five continents; seven from Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone and Uganda; three from Latin America: Brazil, Chile and Peru; one from North America: the United States; four from Europe: Albania, Russia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom; and five from Asia: Nepal, Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Sri-Lanka. Altus is a global alliance working across continents and from a multicultural perspective to improve public safety and justice.
Conflict Study Center (www.cscenter.org.np), one of the local partner organizations of the Altus Global Alliance for PSVW, is organizing a Police Station Visitors Week for the first time in Nepal. The event will incorporate ten police Stations in the Kathmandu valley: Balaju, Bouddha, Bhaktapur, Gausala, Humandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgung, New-Baneswor and Singhadurbar.
The visit by small groups of citizens to local police stations is designed to produce comparable scores on five dimensions of police service that include: Community Orientation, Physical Condition, Equal Treatment of the Public, Detention Conditions, and Transparency and Accountability.
PSVW is a unique event globally organized by Altus to assess the quality of services delivered in the participating police departments, to identify some of the best practices in use by police, to strengthen the accountability of police to the local citizens whom they serve and to promote human rights standards.
The overarching goal of the program is to measurably improve the quality of local police service according to international standards as interpreted by local communities. This helps them identify some of the good practices being used by police, and strengthens the accountability of police to the local citizens. This, in turn, contributes to improving trust and cooperation between police and communities, leading to greater reliance on police by crime victims and improved access to justice.
The scores generated by the visitors would allow Altus to identify examples of good practices nationally, regionally and globally, while allowing local based non governmental organizations and local citizens to engage police officers in their own regions to improve services.
Devendra Uprety, Project Coordinator
Bishnu Pathak, PhD, Altus Country Director and CS Center President
|The CSCenter in the News: Police Station Visitors Week 2009|
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Who we are
Founded in 2006, The Conflict Study Center is comprised of a group of preeminent experts and scholars in related fields united with the vision of a peaceful and fully democratic, inclusive Nepal that upholds the rule of law and respects human rights.
It is committed to the process of conflict transformation through peaceful means, a concept that stands apart from others such as conflict resolution and conflict management in that it seeks to mitigate the underlying causes of conflict by transforming the societal relationships that support violence.
Police Station Visitors’ Week 2011
The Police Station Visitors’ Week (PSVW) 2011 was organized by the ALTUS Global Alliance from October 31 to November 6, 2011. It was a global initiative organized in 21 countries, namely Benin, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Uganda in Africa; Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan in Asia; Latvia and Russia in Europe; Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru in Latin America; and USA in North America. It covered all the continents stretching from Bangladesh to Brazil, Maldives to Mexico, and Russia to Benin. Altus is a global alliance working across continents with a multicultural perspective to improve public safety and justice. Peace and Conflict Studies Center (PCSC) is one among the local partner organizations of Altus Global Alliance to conduct the PSVW event in Nepal, which was held two times earlier in 2009 and 2010. The event incorporates ten police stations in Kathmandu Valley situated at Balaju, Bouddha, Bhaktapur, Gaushala, Hanumandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgung, New Baneswor, and Singhadurbar. During the event, small groups of citizens visit the local police stations to produce comparable scores on five dimensions, namely Community Orientation, Physical Conditions, Equal Treatment (of public without bias based on age, gender, ethnicity, nationality, minority, status, or sexual orientation), Transparency and Accountability, and Detention Conditions. Thus, the police stations are expected to improve their quality of services provided to the civilians in comparison to previous years and to strengthen transparency and accountability of police toward local citizens whom they are supposed to serve, thus promoting their humanitarian standards as well.
For more, please read the following reports:
Police Station Visitors Week 2010
Between October 18th to 24th 2010, Altus had organized Police Station Visitors’ Week (PSVW) in 21 countries, namely Benin, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Uganda in Africa; Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan in Asia; Latvia and Russia in Europe; Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru in Latin America; and USA in North America. It tried to cover all the continents stretching from Bangladesh to Brazil, Maldives to Mexico, and Russia to Benin.
Peace and Conflict Studies Center (PCSC), one of the local partner organizations of the Altus Global Alliance for PSVW, had organized the event for the second time in Nepal. The event incorporated ten police stations in Kathmandu Valley situated at Balaju, Bouddha, Bhaktapur, Gaushala, Hanumandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgung, New Baneswor, and Singhadurbar.
In the PSVW event, the visitors observed and assessed through five dimensional objectives, namely Community Orientation, Physical Conditions, Equal Treatment of the Public, Transparency and Accountability, and Detention Conditions. The event was aimed to assess the quality of services delivered in police stations by identifying some of the best practices being used by the police in order to strengthen their accountability toward the local citizens by ensuring national, regional, and international human rights standards.
For more, please read the following reports:
Police Station Visitors Week 2009
Police Station Visitors’ Week (PSVW) was organized from October 26th to November 1st, 2009 by the ALTUS Global Alliance (www.altus.org). In the PSVW event, small teams of residents visited their local police stations in 20 countries to assess certain aspects of the services that they provide to the public.
The Conflict Study Center (CS Center), one of the local partner organizations of the Altus Global Alliance for PSVW, had organized the event for the first time in Nepal, which incorporated ten police stations in Kathmandu Valley situated at Balaju, Bouddha, Bhaktapur, Gaushala, Hanumandhoka, Kalimati, Lalitpur, Maharajgung, New Baneswor, and Singhadurbar.